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Full text of "An illustration of the Egyptian, Grecian, and Roman costume; in forty outlines, with descriptions, selected, drawn & engraved"

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ILLUSTRA.TION 



OF THE 



EGYPTIAN, 



GRECIAN, 



AND 



ROMAN COSTUME; 

IN FORTY OUTLINES, 

CSJttj) ^Descriptions, 

SELECTED, DRAWN, # ENGRAVED, 

BY 



THOMAS BAXTER. 

Ml 



LONDON: 

PRINTED FOR WILLIAM MILLER, ALBEMARLE STREETs 
By J. & E. Hodson, Cross Street, Hntton Garden. 

— «*!»— 

1810. 



TO 



HENRY FUSELI, ESQ. 



PROFESSOR IN PAINTING, 



AXD 



KEEPER OF THE ROYAL ACADEMY, 



AS A SMALL 



TESTIMONY OF GRATITUDE, 



TOR HIS READINESS TO ACCELERATE 



THE PROGRESS OF THE STUDENTS 



UNDER HIS CARE; 



THIS WORK 



IS RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED, 



BY HIS OBLIGED 



HUMBLE SERVANT, 



THOMAS BAXTER. 



Cohhmith Street, Gough Square, 
July, 1810. 







IT is intended in the present Work t& 
give, in a regular series. Specimens of the Character and 
Costume of the God and Goddess, Priest and Priestess, 
Warrior, Lady, Peasant, and Child, of the Egyptians, 
Greeks, and Romans; but especially of the Greeks, as 
it is to them we owe nearly all that is elegant or digni- 
fied in Art* 



DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES. 



J. HE Frontispiece is a Greek Vase, with such ornaments 
as are commonly seen on the Vase. The Bust of Minerva 
Hippias, protected by the tryphalia, or triple-crested hel- 
met and cegis, is from a gem : Homer gives to the golden 
helmet of Jupiter a four crests. The cegis worn by Ju- 
piter and Minerva, alternately as a breast-plate and a shield, 
consisted of a goat's skin, with scales of metal affixed to it. 
A gorgon's head was placed in the centre, and the mar- 
gin was ornamented with golden serpents. The tree on 
each side is the olive in bloom. 

Plate 1. Osiris and Isis, from b Statues; Egyptian 
Symbols from Denon. Perhaps in these statues we see the 
dress of the Priest and Priestess of the God and Goddess. 
Of the Egyptian garments, the name of but one, the cala- 
siris, has come down to us ; which is said to have been a 
linen tunic, and frequently worn by itself. They had also 
woollen mantles ; but garments of wool were not admitted 
into the temples. According to c Diodorus Siculus, the 
king and priest of Egypt bore a sceptre like a plough share; 
several of this kind are represented amongst the symbols. 
Orus in the lap of Isis, and the Hawk, are emblems of the 
sun or light, and the beetle represents the world. The lion 
and sphinx are symbols of the rising and falling of the 
Nile : and the sistrum, or rattle, is an ancient Egyptian 
musical instrument. 

* llouicr. Iliad. Book 8. b Museum Capitolinum. c Book 1. 



6 

Plate 2. Costume of an Egyptian Female, from a frag- 
ment of a Sphinx and paintings in the British Museum ; 
the chair, stool, and harp, from Denon. There are few 
figures on the painted mummies and coffins, without this 
head dress, though the majority have not the ribbon. The 
Egyptians wore garments of d fine linen of all colours, 
striped and checquered ; e wreathed bracelets and f chains 
of gold for the neck ; and golden bracelets for the arm 
and leg. 

Plate 3. Egyptian Costume, from Denon. The gar- 
ment seen on the figures attending the plough is frequently 
represented in this manner on the mummies in the British 
Museum. Denon says, that the plough is such as is used 
at present. The sower has a collar on. The figure hold- 
ing a staff terminated by the flower of the lotus, is a Spriest 
in an embroidered garment, a cap and h linen shoes. The 
bending figure is habited in a 'leathern cap, and a garment 
of a single piece of embroidered cloth folded round the 
body, supported by two straps fastened to an ornamented 
metal girdle, in which is a poniard ; the arm is adorned by 
a bracelet, and the feet are protected by sandals. The hel- 
met ornamented in front with the hooded snake, in which 
the warrior appears, was generally of brass; his body is 
protected by the thorax or pectoral, which was made of 
linen, k closely folded so as to resist a weapon. The 
Egyptian soldiers sometimes carried a small oblong shield. 

Plate 4. An Egyptian Tumbler on the bach of a tame 
Crocodile. The figure is naked except that the hair cover- 
ing the head appears to be artificial; the Egyptians 'shaved 
the heads of their children at a very early age, and kept 
them so ever after, except in times of mourning. 

Plate 5. Juno, Neptune, and Ceres; from a cast of a bas 
relief in a very ancient style of execution. In the Iliad, 
m Juno binds up part of her hair; the rest waves on her 



d Genesis, chap. xli. e Herodotus. Thalia. f Genesis, chap. xli. 

s Deuon. h Herodotus. Euterpe. 'Denon. k Herodotus. CMo,* 

1 Herodotus. Thalia. ro Book xiv. 



shoulders. " Around her flows" a figured peplon or man- 
tle, fastened with clasps of gold; a white veil is thrown 
over her head, and sandals " grace her feet." Sandals and 
shoes were sometimes n embroidered, and sometimes of 
°gold. Neptune appears in the peplon, which was a thin 
robe usually worn by women, and sometimes richly orna- 
mented: it was folded round the body, and occasionally 
fastened with clasps, or buckles. Ceres is invested in the 
inner and outer chiton or tunic: over these is a long robe 
of which the extremity is carried up and supported on the 
left arm : it is bound under the breast by a zone ; and fas- 
tened on the arm with peronei or clasps. The zone was 
sometimes of Pgold. 

Plate 6. Jupiter, Minerva, and Hercules; or Majesty, 
Wisdom and Strength ; from casts of busts. 

Plate f. Hercules contending with Hyppolita Jor the 
girdle of Mars. From Sir W. Hamilton's Phases, vol. 1. 
plates 12 and 13. Hercules is generally represented on the 
Greek vases, in the lion's skin tied round his neck by the 
fore paws, the head forming a cap, and the rest hanging 
down as a cloak or mantle. The Grecian heroes are some- 
times described as wearing the skin of some animal which 
they have vanquished, borne as a trophy over their armour 
or other attire. Hyppolita is habited in a very close dress, 
formed perhaps of a leopard's skin, and bound with the 
girdle. Her bonnet, which is Phrygian, seems to be com- 
posed of the skin of some small animal, of which the orna 
ments hanging loose on each side may be the legs ; some- 
times they are represented as turned up and fastened at 
the top. She has likewise the chlamys, or travelling cloak, 
and shoes. 

Plate 8. Hercules shooting the Stymphalides, from a 
*ibas relief. The club was the earliest offensive weapon, 
and next in priority followed the bow and arrow. The 
Greek bow was made of a r goat's horns, and was drawn to 



n Iliad 2. Odyssey 13. ° Potter's Euripides. Iphigeniain Aulis. 
? Iliad 14. 9 Museum Clemcntinum. r Iliad 4. 



the breast. The quiver slung over the shoulder, was a case 
for the bow as well as the arrows ; it was sometimes richly 
s ornamented, and some representations have a cover of 
skin to protect the arrows. 

Plate 9. Homer and his Muse, from a cast of a bas re- 
lief. The Muse is habited in two varieties of the chiton, 
one having long and the other short sleeves. A shawl or 
small mantle thrown over her shoulder, encircles her waist. 
Homer has the peplon, or larger mantle, loosely worn. 

Plate 10. Three Grecian heads, from casts of busts. 
The names of the persons represented are doubtful. The 
nearest, long considered Ariadne, is now called Bacchus ; 
the hair is bound up, and crowned with ivy in the manner 
of a Bacchante. The second, wearing a helmet adorned 
with sculpture, is supposed to be Achilles. The hair of 
the third hangs loosely down on each side of the face. 

Plate 1 1 . A Grecian Priest and Priestess at the Altar, 
preparing to perform a Libation, from a vase in the Bri- 
tish Museum. They are both habited in the peplon and 
chiton, one with long full sleeves and the other without 
sleeves. Their hair is in the style of the most ancient 
Greek works. Priests and heralds wore *the laurel crown. 
The feet are destitute of covering, which seems to have 
been customary in "Greek temples. The priest holds 
the patera and the priestess the vase. 

Plate 1 2. A Priest of Bacchus and Attendant, or Faun, 
from a vase in the British Museum. The faun is naked 
except that he has a mask with horns. 

Plate 13. Faun and Y Bacchante, from a cast of a bas 
relief. They each carry a thyrsus in the right hand and 
vase in the left. The thyrsus was a stick, or reed, termi- 
nated by a fir cone, sometimes ornamented with ivy leaves, 
fillets, ribbons and flowers. 

8 Odyssey 21. * Eschylus. Agamemnon, and Sophocles. Trachinice. 
u Euripides. Ion. v For a description of which see the Bacchte of 

Euripides. 



9 

Plate 14. A Bacchanalian crowned with ajillet and ivy 
leaves, dancing to a Bacchante piping; the latter is at- 
tired in loose robes; a mouth-piece to fit the pipes is fas- 
tened on her head. From Sir W. Hamilton's Vases, 
vol. 3, plate 17, and a Vase in the British Museum. 

Plate 15. A Bacchante hearing a wreath of Laurel 
Leaves to hind round the neck of the Victim, from a cast of 
a bas relief. 

Plate 16. Grecian musical Performers and Instru- 
ments. A Bacchanalian with double pipes; from Sir W. 
Hamilton's Vases, vol. 2. plate 41. Apollo Musagetes 
with the lyre suspended from the left wrist ; from a bas 
relief in a very ancient style of execution. The Bacchante 
is playing pn the ' ' w deep-toned tymbrel," from Sir W. Ha- 
milton's Vases, vol. 2. plate 50. The separate lyre and 
altar are from vol. 2. plate 3$. 

Plate 17. A Greek Philosopher, from a cast of a statue. 

Plate 18. This appears to be the dress of an early Greek 
Warrior, and is from a drawing of a Vase formerly in the 
possession of Sir W. Hamilton, except that the greaves 
were plain in the drawing, and that the spear and shield 
have been supplied from other vases. The leathern hel- 
met has a "variegated crest of horse-hair ; to the y thorax or 
corslet also of leather, shoulder-guards are fastened. The 
corslet was sometimes of embroidered linen. The knemi- 
des, or greaves, were generally leather, occasionally of me- 
tal, and made to fit the legs exactly ; they were connected 
behind with z clasps or buckles, sometimes of silver. The 
Greek spears, usually pointed with brass, were sometimes 
very large: Hector's was a eleven cubits in length, and that 
of b Achilles, no Greek but himself could manage. The 
shields were sometimes of brass with a lining of skin. An 
attendant on the warrior usually carried the large round 
shield called aspis. 



Bacchce. x Iliad 3. » Iliad 7. l Iliad 11. * Iliad 6. b Iliad 19. 
c Euripides. Phoenician Virgins. 

B 



10 

Plate 19. A Greek Warrior, from a cast of a statue. 
The spear and sword are supplied from vases. The dress 
consists only of the chlamys, and koras, or head-piece 
with a fixed visor, which in battle was drawn down over 
the face. The chlamys is fastened on the right shoulder, 
and falls over the left arm, leaving the right at liberty ; 
the extremities were generally loaded with small pieces 
of metal, which prevented them from being lifted by the 
wind. This robe is seldom represented on the vases with- 
out a stripe or border at the margin. 

Plate 20. Iris in the costume of a herald or messen- 
ger (which consisted of the chlamys, chiton, and caduceus) 
presenting a helmet. 

Plate 21. A Young Warrior, from a Vase in the Bri- 
tish Museum. The body-armour from Sir W. Hamilton's 
Vases, vol. i. plate 4. The ornaments on the shield 
have been supplied from other Vases. The pharos or 
great mantle, which is frequently mentioned by Homer, 
was sometimes of a red colour. When the wearer was 
reposing, it was converted into a coverlet. A clasp or 
button confined it in front. The petassus, or hat, is 
thrown back upon the warrior's shoulders. The breast- 
plate of metal, with shoulder-guards, is affixed to a tunic, 
which seems to be of leather. Breast-plates were some- 
times of d gold, ornamented with sculpture. The tunic is 
worn over the chiton. The sandals are fastened half way 
up the legs. On the left side is a sword suspended from 
a zone, or baldric, which crosses his right shoulder; the 
baldric was sometimes richly ornamented. The Grecian 
sword was short, and usually made of brass ; the hilt some- 
times of e gold and sometimes of f ivory and gold. A 
warrior, if travelling, is seldom seen on the vases without 
two spears. Euripides describes the Greek soldiers to 
have carried s white shields; whilst those of their leaders 
were richly ornamented with devices, and sometimes bor- 



1 Odyssey 19. e Iliad. f Pausanias. Book 6. chap. 19.' 

8 Phoenician Virgins. 



11 

dered with h black. The white shields were probably of 
1 willow. 

Plate 22. The Pyrrhic or War Dance, from Sir W. 
Hamilton's Fases, vol. i. plate 6o. The children of the 
Lacedemonians were taught this dance at a very early 
age ; and Hector is supposed to allude to it when he talks 
of k moving his feet to the sound of Mars. The breast- 
plate is apparently composed of three circular pieces of 
metal, fastened on the body by two straps crossing the 
shoulders and affixed to the mitra or 1 cincture at the 
groin. The Greek armour is generally called by Homer 
golden, or azure, as the materials used were either brass 
or iron ; gold was frequently used for the ornaments. The 
corslet or cuirass has two rows of hanging straps ; this 
fashion was adopted by the Romans. 

Plates 23 and 24, are from a Vase in the British Mu- 
seum, the figures on which probably represent the subject 
of Pelops and Hippodamia, or perhaps the Rape of Helen. 
Paris in the quadriga, or chariot, drawn by four horses 
used in the races; and again, appearing with Helen be- 
fore Cassandra, answers the descriptions of him given by 
m Euripides. Vests richly embroidered with figures in 
gold are described by n Eschylus; and similar garments 
are frequently mentioned by Homer and other Greek 
poets, and generally termed barbaric. 

Plate 25. Two Grecian Ladies. One from vol. 2. 
plate 12. Sir W. Hamilton's leases, the other from a 
Vase in the British Museum. The sitting figure has a 
small lyre and in her right hand she holds the plectron 
with which the strings were struck ; her dress is the long 
chiton without sleeves ; short tunics were considered vul- 
gar. The lady dancing has the chiton with sleeves, and a 
shawl or small mantle. ° Entwined wreaths, p purple fil- 
lets, and gems, were worn on the head by Grecian ladies 



h NEschylus. Seven Chiefs against Tliehcs. • Travels of Anacharsis, 

chap. 10. k Iliad 7. ' Iliad 5. w Trojan Dames, and Iphiginia. 

*Chcephorce. ° .Euripides. Medea. * Iliad 18. 



12 

The under tunic was made of linen or cotton, very fine, 
and generally white ; but the upper tunics, robes, and 
shawls, were of various colours ; scarlet, green, and purple, 
weie considered the richest. The embroidered stuffs were 
not worn by modest women, amongst the Greeks ; and at 
Athens there was a °t law to prohibit it. 

Plate 26. A Grecian Lady , and Servant, from Sir 
W. Hamilton's Vases, vol. 1. plate 10. The lady r " cul- 
ling the snowy fleece;" is supposed to represent Penelope. 
She is habited in the chiton with long full sleeves. The 
peplon lays loose over her knees. The servant holds a 
s fan of feathers. The vases which held the wool, cotton, 
or flax, were sometimes richly adorned with sculpture. 
Ivory chairs and footstools, ornamented with silver and 
covered with skins, are frequently mentioned by Homer 
and other Greek writers. 

Plate 27. A Grecian Lady at the Bath, the servant 
pouring perfumed water or v oil on her mistress. 

Plate 28. A Grecian Lady fainting her Face, with a 
Servant in attendance. The case is supposed to contain 
a fan of feathers. From Sir W. Hamilton's Vases, vol. 
2. plates 36 and 58, and vol. 3. plate 51. The Grecian 
ladies painted their faces with u white and red ; and their 
eyebrows with black. They wore w ear-rings, which were 
sometimes very rich. x Golden bracelets were worn and 
the " mirrors golden round" is mentioned by y Euripides. 

Plate 29. A Grecian Lady performing Funeral Rites, 
from vol. 2. plate 30. Sir W. Hamilton's Vases. The 
Grecians when they mourned z cut their hair; and wore 
the peplon a over the head, and the tunic b black. This 
lady has made a c libation, and bound a fillet round the 
pillar or tomb ; she holds in her hand a wreath made of 
the hair which she has cut off. The hair was commonly 



<J Travels of Anacharsis chap. 20. r Odyssey 6. s Euripides. Orestes. 

1 Odyssey 4. v Iliad Book 14. u Travels of Anacharsis, chap. 20. 

w Iliad 14. x Eschylus. Chcephorat. * Hecuba. z Euripides. Eledlrai 

a Sophocles. Ajax. b Euripides; Alcestes- c Euripides. Ele6t?~a. 



13 

left on the tomb, and branches of laurel and myrtle were 
strewed round it. 

Plate 30. A Dancing Girl, from a picture found at 
Herculaneum. She is habited in the tunic and small 
mantle fastened on each shoulder by a clasp. Necklaces 
were worn very rich, frequently of gold or amber, Pausa- 
nias describes one of d green stones set in gold. 

Plate 31. Comedian and Tragic Mash, from sculp- 
ture in the British Museum ; another Mask from one of 
bronze found on the face of a skeleton in a sepulchre at 
Nola. Sir W. Hamilton's Vases, vol. 2. plate ] . After 
the time of Eschylus, the actors of Greece never appeared 
on the stage, in any species of the drama, without masks, 
which covered the whole head, and were made to repre- 
sent the person intended, in character, age, and sex; they 
generally had a large open mouth, contrived so as to in- 
crease the sound of the voice; the most perfect were of 
wood, executed with the greatest care, by sculptors of the 
first rank, who received their directions from the poet. 
See Franklin's Dissertation on Ancient Tragedy, pre- 
fixed to his translation of Sophocles. The comedian is 
in the country dress, a short tunic and cloak or mantle. 

Plate 32. Tumbling, said to be that of which Homer 
speaks. From Sir W. Hamilton's Vases, vol. 1. plate 60. 
Perhaps it is not Grecian, though represented on a Greek- 
Vase, as it does not answer the descriptions in e Homer. 
The tumbler wears the saravara, or Scythian drawers; she 
is endeavouring, with the simpulum which she holds be- 
twixt her toes, to fill the lesser vase out of the greater, 
whilst the other woman directs her. The ornaments on 
the vase are from vases in the British Museum, and are 
supposed to represent the Cretan labyrinth, the Greek 
lotus, and the sea, or water, all of which had some refer- 
ence to the worship of Bacchus and Ceres. 

Plate 33. A Roman Consul, from a f statue. He is 
habited in the tunica with sleeves, and the toga. In the 



Book 9. chap. 41. e Iliad 18. Odyssey 4. f Museum Florentinuw . 



14 

early part of the Roman republic, beards were generally 
worn, and it was considered effeminate to appear in a 
garment with sleeves. The tunic was worn at home 
without a girdle, but with one abroad. The toga, worn 
perhaps by no other nation, and at Rome only by freemen, 
seems to have been a large piece of woollen cloth, having 
one side semi-circular; folded round the body and over 
the left shoulder, so as to leave the right arm at liberty, 
but from the left arm it hung down to the ankles in long 
narrow' folds; under the left breast it was doubled in and 
formed a kind of pocket, called sinus. Priests wore it 
drawn over the head, and for mourning it was generally 
worn so, and was of a dark colour, or black. It was some- 
times the colour of the wool, sometimes white, but gene- 
rally dyed, and was worn sometimes without any tunic. 

Plate 34. A Roman General, from a statue of s Mar- 
cus Aurelius. The leathern and metal cuirass made to 
fit the body exactly, were adopted by the Romans from 
the Greeks. The whole of this dress is Grecian. The 
chlamys, when worn by the Roman generals, was called 
paludamentum. The common soldiers had a short cloak 
somewhat like the chlamys, which was called sagum. 

Plate 35. Roman Officers, from h bas reliefs. These 
are in Greek dresses adopted by the Romans. The figure 
with the helmet is habited in nearly the same manner as 
a statue called i Pyrrhus of Epirus ; and this cuirass, with 
the tasses or straps, which were sometimes plated with 
metal, is likewise represented at the side of one of the Dio- 
scuri, supposed to be by Phidias. The sitting figure holds 
in his left hand a Roman standard, the crest of which is an 
eagle. The cloak of the other figure is the Greek pharos, 
called by the Romans pallium; he wears likewise the 
femoralia, or drawers, under the tunic, and a dagger at 
his left side ; the Roman sword was generally longer than 
the Grecian. 



« Museum Capitolinum. h Triumphal Arches, by Bartoli. 
1 Museum Capitolinum. 



15 

Plate 36. The dress of a Roman Standard Bearer, 
from a k bas relief. In the Roman sculpture of the time 
of Trajan, the standard-bearers are represented with the 
skins of lions worn in the manner of this figure. He has 
three tunics, sandals, and a girdle with straps hanging 
from it. Two tunics were generally worn, the inner of 
which was called subuculum, and was of wool: the em- 
peror Augustus wore this and four others. The standard 
is composed of a circular portrait of the emperor, a mural 
and triumphal crown, and the eagle seated on an arch. 

Plate 37. Three Roman Soldiers, from m bas reliefs. 
The Romans sometimes wore plumes of feathers on their 
helmets. The principes, or heavy armed soldiers, wore 
hoops of brass or iron bound round the body, drawers and 
sandals; and helmets of leather, brass, and iron. The 
velites, or light armed, wore the lorica, (coat of mail) 
which was a leathern jacket set with small plates of metal, 
in the manner of scales or feathers : they likewise wore 
drawers and sandals. 

Plate 38. Five Roman Heads. Hadrian is from a bust 
in the British Museum. Vespasian, and Julia the daugh- 
ter of Titus, are from gems. Augustus and Faustina, are 
from coins. The Roman ladies used hot irons to curl 
their hair, and they sometimes wore false hair. 

Plate 39. A Roman Lady on a Couch, from n sculp- 
ture. She is habited in the tunica and pallium, which 
was worn by the Roman matrons, large enough to con- 
ceal °all but their faces and then called stola. She is 
reclined, and has in her hand a chaplet of flowers ; the 
p chaplet was worn round the head. 

Plate 40. A Roman Youth and two Children. The 
child wearing two tunics, cne long and the other short, 
is from a statue in the possession of Mr. Westmacott. 
The other 1 child wearing the pallium and tunic, with the 



k Triumphal Arches, by Bartoli. ' Suetonius. m Triumphal Arches. 
■ Museum Capitoliuum. ° Francis's Horace, Sat. 2. PDrydcn's 
Juvenal, Sat. 2. 1 Museum Capitoliaum. 



16 

r youth, are from Roman sculpture. The youth is habited 
in the tunic and toga pretexta, which was white, having 
a purple band at the margin, and worn by the sons of 
the nobility. He has likewise the bulla, a gold or silver 
box, generally ornamented with a heart engraved on it, 
and contained a charm or amulet: it was fastened round 
the neck by a chain or ribbon, and was not worn after 
fifteen or sixteen years of age. They seem to have 
linen shoes. 

* Museum Florentinum. 



FINIS. 



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